Results for Diagnosis  
Title: Support Center Machine Method for Classification and Help in Medical Diagnosis System
Abstract:

Objectives: A new artificial intelligent method ‘Support Center Machines’ (SCM) for helping diagnosis and prognosis is applied to a medical system. Methods In data processing, SCM seeks the true centers of each class during machine learning. For application in the medical system, it makes these centers as health-situation models and translates all the health records into a map. All the models, like non disease and diseases, are labeled in this map. Thus, the evolution of patient’s health records can be supervised with the map. On the basis of the evolution of the distances from the recent record data to the centers, the system estimates the tendency of the healthy evolution and forecasts the probable situation in the future. Results: SCM was tested on ‘Wisconsin Breast Cancer Data’ and compared with LDA and SVM methods. Twenty centers were found to define the healthy map. Based on the test results of four hundred and fifty random data selection for train, SCM has shown a better performance, whose means of correct detection ratios of the breast cancer varied from 91.4% to 95.6%, which were corresponding to 10% of data and 90% of data used to do machine learning. These ratios have increased by 1% to 5%, than SVM and LDA. In addition, the variance of correct detection ratios of SCM results has decreased by 0.8% to 3.0%, compared with SVM and LDA. Even if there were only 10% data for the training, the ratio stayed around 87% with only 3 principal components. When the system used 50% data for the training and tests the others, the mean of ratio was 93% and the best was 95%.
Conclusions: SCM successfully build a disease diagnosis/prognosis system and works out a healthy map. It could display the health record on 2D or 3D map, which allows the clinician to appropriate the interpretation. In addition, if a new situation (symptom / disease) occurs, the practitioner can visualize it and analyze it according to existing maps of SCM.


Sources: Omics Online
Keywords: Decision support systems; Computer-assisted diagnosis;Machine learning; Support center machines; Disease prognosis,
Title: What Factors Influence the Age at Diagnosis of Sickle Cell Anemia in Enugu, Nigeria?
Abstract:

Objectives: This study aimed at determining the factors that influence the age at diagnosis of sickle cell anemia among children in Enugu, Nigeria. Methods: One hundred and fifty seven children with sickle cell anemia were recruited consecutively using a researcher administered questionnaire. Information obtained from patient’s mother included patient’s bio-data, social history, family history, age at confirmation of diagnosis and clinical information. Result: There was a wide variation of the age at diagnosis of sickle cell anemia ranging from 2 months to 14.7 years with a median age of 24 months. Only 10.4% were diagnosed before the age of six months and all were diagnosed after they have presented with symptoms and complications. The age of the mother and having an elder sibling with sickle cell anemia significantly affected the age at which the disease is diagnosed. Conclusion: There is a delay in the diagnosis of sickle cell anemia in Enugu with mother’s age and having an elder sibling with the disease influencing the age at diagnosis.


Sources: Omics Online
Keywords: Age; Diagnosis,Sickle cell anemia,Enugu objectives,
Title: The Use of Real-Time PCR (qPCR) for the Diagnosis of Bovine Herpes virus 5 in Formalin-Fixed, Paraffin-Embedded Bovine Brain Samples Identified as Bovine Unspecific Encephalitis
Abstract:

Background: Bovine herpes virus 5 (BoHV-5) is a neurovirulent alpha herpes virus that causes fatal meningoencephalitis and huge economic losses in the livestock and associated industries worldwide; its diagnosis in the laboratory is essential for disease control, immunologic surveillance and effective monitoring programs in endemic areas.

Materials and Methods: In this study, brain samples from 21 Colombian cattle that died of neurological disease, were negative for rabies and were diagnosed with nonspecific encephalitis were processed by real-time PCR (qPCR) in the laboratory of virology at the Institute of Biosciences, Sao Paulo State University, Brazil, to detect BoHV-5 genetic material in tissue preserved in paraffin blocks. Tissues were considered positive for BoHV-5 if amplification occurred at or before 30 PCR cycles, inconclusive if amplification occurred between 30 and 40 cycles and negative otherwise.

Results and Conclusion: Two cases were positive, demonstrating that qPCR may be useful for confirming herpes encephalitis in acid formalin-fixed tissues with an inconclusive diagnosis.


Sources: Omics Online
Keywords: Bovine Herpes virus 5,Real-Time PCR,Diagnosis, BoHV-5,
Title: Over-diagnosis in Lung Cancer Screening using the MSKC-LCSP Data
Abstract:

We applied a newly developed probability method to predict long term outcomes and over diagnosis in lung cancer screening using the Memorial Sloan-Kettering Cancer study (MSKC-LCSP) data. All participants were categorized into four mutually exclusive groups depending on their diagnosis status and ultimate disease status: symptom-freelife, no-early-detection, true-early-detection and over-diagnosis. Probability of each group is a function of the three key parameters: screening sensitivity, sojourn time in preclinical state and transition density from disease free to the preclinical state. We first obtained reliable and accurate estimates of these three key parameters using the MSKCLCSP data and likelihood function with a Bayesian approach, and then calculate the probability of each group by inserting these Bayesian posterior samples to the probability formulae, to predict future long term outcomes of lung cancer screening using chest x-ray. Human lifetime was treated as a random variable derived from US. Social Security Administration (SSA), so number of screening exams in the future is a random variable as well. The result shows that over diagnosis is not a big issue in lung cancer screening, given that it is only about 4.56% to 7.43% among the screendetected cases, depending on the age at the first screening.


Sources: Omics Online
Keywords: Over diagnosis,Sojourn time,Sensitivity,Transition probability,Lung cancer screening,
Title: D-Matrix: Fault Diagnosis Framework
Abstract:

Fault dependency (D-matrix) is a systematic diagnostic model which is used to catch the fault system data and its causal relationship at the hierarchical system-level. It consists of dependencies and relationship between observable failure modes and symptoms associated with a system. Proposed system describes an ontology based text mining method for automatically constructing and updating a D-matrix by mining thousands of repair verbatim data (typically written in unstructured text) collected during the diagnosis episodes. First we construct fault diagnosis ontology and then employ text mining method to identify dependencies. The proposed method will be implemented as a prototype tool and validated by using real-life data collected from the automobile domain.


Sources: Omics Online
Keywords: Fault diagnosis; fault detection; information retrieval; dependency-matrix; text mining.,
Title: Evaluation of DAVIH-BLOT System for Simultaneous Diagnosis of HIV-1/2
Abstract:

Validation of performance characteristics of HIV diagnostic tests is one of the main demands of regulatory bodies. Evaluating of diagnostics tests prior to use avoid errors with a high economic and social cost. The aim of the work was to validate the DAVIH-BLOT modified system for simultaneous diagnosis of HIV-1/2. An evaluation with 166 samples of reference panels and a comparative study against a commercial kit of similar characteristics with an international reference panel of 25 samples was made. The new system expanded its diagnostic capacity with the incorporation of a gp36 synthetic peptide-protein conjugate, obtaining high results of sensitivity and specificity in the performance evaluation (99.18 and 76.74% respectively). In the comparative study with the analogue system the concordance was very good (kappa=1). The inclusion of the synthetic peptide and natural proteins in the same solid phase, constitute a technological novelty to this assay. The application of this test, allows a short cut of the diagnostic algorithm when are used screening tests for HIV-1 and 2 as in the Cuba’s diagnostic algorithm.


Sources: Omics Online
Keywords: Western blot,HIV-1/2,diagnosis.,
Title: Assesment of the Vasoactive Intestinal Polypeptide (VIP) in Morphologically Normal Appendices Removed from Patients with Clinical Diagnosis of Acute Appendicitis
Abstract:

Background: Correct diagnosis of acute appendicitis is one of the most challenging issues in surgery. About 15% to 40% of all appendectomies result in the removal of morphologically normal appendices.

Objective: To assess values of the vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) in the presence of normal and inflamed appendices removed due to clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis.

Patients and Methods: The appendices removed from 76 patients were divided into three groups as follows: group 1: 50 morphologically normal appendices that were removed due to clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis; group 2: 10 normal appendices prophylactically removed during other surgical procedures; group 3: 16 inflamed appendices with a morphological aspect of acute appendicitis. Histological and immunohistochemical studies defined the characteristics of each appendix of all groups.

Results: Groups 1 and 2 did not differ between themselves, but group 3 showed a greater degree of color reaction for VIP than groups 1 and 2.

Conclusion: Morphologically normal appendices removed due to a clinical diagnosis of acute appendicitis do not present the immunohistochemical changes for the VIP that is found in inflamed appendices.


Sources: Omics Online
Keywords: Appendix; Appendicitis; Appendicectomy; VIP; Diagnosis; Treatment,
Title: Nanoparticles Functionalized with Ligands of Cell Surface Nucleolin for Cancer Therapy and Diagnosis
Abstract:

Conventional cancer chemotherapies are often limited by their non-targeted nature and their inadequate delivery to the tumor affecting the normal tissues and leading to toxic adverse effects. In order to improve the anticancer efficacy and safety of these drugs, as well as the diagnosis capacity of imaging agents, nanoparticles drug delivery system has been developed combining ligands enabling tumor targeting at a cellular level and drug carrier capacity. Nucleolin (NCL) is a multifunctional protein that could shuttle from nucleolus to nucleoplasm, cytoplasm and cell surface. This ribonucleo protein over expressed at the cell surface of cancer cells is involved in many cancer processes supporting tumorigenesis such as cell proliferation and apoptosis. Additionally, NCL expression is enhanced in angiogenic vessels, enabling multi-targeting strategies toward the tumor microenvironment. In this context, several compounds targeting NCL, such as the aptamer AS1411, the peptide F3 and the multivalent pseudopeptide N6L, have been developed and investigated for cancer therapy. Due to their cancer cell targeting capacities, these compounds have been evaluated to mediate highly specific and effective nanoparticles for drug delivery to the tumor. In this report, we present a review of literature focusing on drug-loaded nanoparticles conjugated with these nucleolin ligands, strikingly emphasizing the success of such a strategy.


Sources: Omics Online
Keywords: Cancer,Cell surface nucleolin,Nanoparticles,As1411,F3,N6l,Tumor targeting,Cancer therapy,Cancer diagnosis,Cancer theragnostic,
Title: Implementing an Educational Program to Enhance Identification, Diagnosis and Treatment of Adolescent Depression into Primary Care in Guatemala
Abstract:

Depression is projected to become the leading cause of disability and second leading contributor to the global burden of disease by the year 2020. Depression commonly has its onset in adolescence-early adulthood, affecting 6-8% of young people during that time span. Youth onset of Depression usually develops into a chronic condition with substantial morbidity and increased mortality. If untreated, depression can negatively impact the life of an adolescent and in some cases lead to suicide. Early identification and effective treatment provided in primary health care, can decrease depression related morbidity and mortality. “Identification, Diagnosis and Treatment of Adolescent Depression, A Package for Primary Health Care Providers” is an evidence-based educational program, designed to enhance the knowledge of primary health care providers to better identify, assess, diagnose and treat adolescent depression. This educational program has been field tested in Canada and is accredited as a Continuing Medical Education in Canada. The program has been translated into Spanish and culturally adapted for the Latin America context. The present article describes the process to establish a ‘Train the Trainers’ program to integrate the educational program into primary health care in Guatemala.


Sources: Omics Online
Keywords: Adolescent,Depression,Identification,Diagnosis,Treatment,,Mental Health,Primary Health Care,Educational Program,Guatemala,
Title: Epigenetics as a basis for diagnosis of neurodevelopmental disorders: challenges and opportunities.
Abstract:
Neurodevelopmental disorders, such as autism, are complex entities that can be caused by biological and social factors. In a subset of patients with congenital neurodevelopmental disorders, clear diagnosis can be achieved using DNA sequence-based analysis to identify changes in the DNA sequence (genetic variation). However, it has recently become clear that changes to the secondary modifications of DNA and histone structures (epigenetic variation) can also cause neurodevelopmental disorders via alteration of neural gene function. Moreover, it has recently been demonstrated that epigenetic modifications are more susceptible to alterations induced by environmental factors than are DNA sequences, and that some drugs commonly used reverse mental-stress induced alterations to histone modifications in neural genes. Therefore, application of diagnostic assays to detect epigenetic alterations will provide new insight into the characterization and treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: dna, metabolism,autism screening and diagnosis,
Title: Psychiatric comorbidity in young adults with a clinical diagnosis of Asperger syndrome.
Abstract:
In children with autism spectrum disorders, previous studies have shown high rates of psychiatric comorbidity. To date, studies on adults have been scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate psychiatric comorbidity in young adults with Asperger syndrome. Participants were 26 men and 28 women (mean age 27 years) with a clinical diagnosis of Asperger syndrome. Psychiatric comorbidity was assessed by the Structured Clinical Interview for DSM-IV Axis I Disorders. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale, Third Edition. Autism spectrum diagnoses were confirmed using the DIagnostic Interview for Social and Communication Disorders. In our study group, 70% had experienced at least one episode of major depression, and 50% had suffered from recurrent depressive episodes. Anxiety disorders were seen in about 50%. Psychotic disorders and substance-induced disorders were uncommon. In conclusion, young adults with autism spectrum disorders are at high risk for mood and anxiety disorders. To identify these conditions and offer treatment, elevated vigilance is needed in clinical practice.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: adult behavior disorders,autism in adults,anxiety,asperger syndrome,autism screening and diagnosis,
Title: Family planning and family vision in mothers after diagnosis of a child with autism spectrum disorder.
Abstract:
The diagnosis of a child with autism has short- and long-term impacts on family functioning. With early diagnosis, the diagnostic process is likely to co-occur with family planning decisions, yet little is known about how parents navigate this process. This study explores family planning decision making process among mothers of young children with autism spectrum disorder in the United States, by understanding the transformation in family vision before and after the diagnosis. A total of 22 mothers of first born children, diagnosed with autism between 2 and 4 years of age, were interviewed about family vision prior to and after their child's diagnosis. Grounded Theory method was used for data analysis. Findings indicated that coherence of early family vision, maternal cognitive flexibility, and maternal responses to diagnosis were highly influential in future family planning decisions. The decision to have additional children reflected a high level of adaptability built upon a solid internalized family model and a flexible approach to life. Decision to stop childrearing reflected a relatively less coherent family model and more rigid cognitive style followed by ongoing hardship managing life after the diagnosis. This report may be useful for health-care providers in enhancing therapeutic alliance and guiding family planning counseling.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: autism,autism screening and diagnosis,autism spectrum disorder,
Title: Views of preimplantation genetic diagnosis among psychiatrists and neurologists.
Abstract:
To examine key aspects of neurologists' and psychiatrists' views and approaches regarding prenatal genetic testing (GT) and preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD).

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: autism screening and diagnosis,rparkinson's disease,
Title: Dark Clouds or Silver Linings? A Stigma Threat Perspective on the Implications of an Autism Diagnosis for Workplace Well-Being.
Abstract:
This article unpacks the stigma associated with a developmental disability at work, specifically autism spectrum disorders (ASD), by presenting findings from 2 studies-one interview-based and the other survey-based. Drawing on in-depth interviews with individuals on the autism spectrum, the first study showed that a clinical diagnosis of autism is a milestone event that triggered both positive (silver linings) and negative (dark clouds) responses to work. These positive and negative responses were shaped by the age at which the diagnosis occurred as well as specific work-related contingencies-identity management (disclosing or not disclosing), the importance of the social demands imposed by the job, and organizational support polices for autism. The second study developed and tested propositions derived from the qualitative data by using survey data gathered from working adults with ASD. Results showed that, compared with individuals diagnosed later in life, individuals who were diagnosed at an earlier age experienced greater organization-based self-esteem and lower perceived discrimination when they disclosed their disability, worked in jobs that placed lower social demands on them, or were employed in organizations that offered policies to support workers with ASD. We conclude that, depending on the age of diagnosis, attributes of the employment context can trigger stigma-related threat in different ways and we outline important practical implications of these findings. (PsycINFO Database Record

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: silver,autism in adults,autism screening and diagnosis,
Title: The New DSM-5 Impairment Criterion: A Challenge to Early Autism Spectrum Disorder Diagnosis?
Abstract:
The possible effect of the DSM-5 impairment criterion on diagnosing autism spectrum disorder (ASD) in young children was examined in 127 children aged 20-47 months with a DSM-IV-TR clinical consensus diagnosis of ASD. The composite score of the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales (VABS) served as a proxy for the DSM-5 impairment criterion. When applying a mild level of impairment (cutoff: 1 SD below the mean on the VABS), 88 % of the cases fulfilled the impairment criterion. Sixty-nine percent fulfilled the impairment criterion at a moderate level (1.5 SDs) and 33 % at a severe level (2 SDs). Findings indicate that a strict application of the new DSM-5 impairment criterion might compromise early diagnosis of ASD.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: women's health,teenage behavior disorders,autism,autism screening and diagnosis,autism spectrum disorder,
Title: Child's verbal ability and gender are associated with age at diagnosis in a sample of young children with ASD in Europe.
Abstract:
Autism spectrum disorder can in some cases be reliably diagnosed by age 2 years, but in community settings, the mean age at diagnosis is often considerably higher. Later diagnosis has been found to be associated with lower symptom severity, lower parental socioeconomic status and fewer parental concerns. Gender differences in age at diagnosis have been examined, with mixed evidence.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: autism,autism screening and diagnosis,autism spectrum disorder,
Title: How will DSM-5 affect autism diagnosis? A systematic literature review and meta-analysis.
Abstract:
We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the effect of changes to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM)-5 on autism spectrum disorder (ASD) and explore policy implications. We identified 418 studies; 14 met inclusion criteria. Studies consistently reported decreases in ASD diagnosis (range 7.3-68.4%) using DSM-5 criteria. There were statistically significant pooled decreases in ASD [31% (20-44), p = 0.006] and DSM-IV-TR subgroups of Autistic disorder [22% (16-29), p < 0.001] and pervasive developmental disorder-not otherwise specified (PDD-NOS) [70% (55-82), p = 0.01]; however, Asperger's disorder pooled decrease was not significant [70% (26-94), p = 0.38]. DSM-5 will likely decrease the number of individuals diagnosed with ASD, particularly the PDD-NOS subgroup. Research is needed on policies regarding services for individuals lacking diagnosis but requiring assistance.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: autism screening and diagnosis,autism spectrum disorder,pervasive developmental disorder,
Title: Social and communication development in toddlers with early and later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders.
Abstract:
To our knowledge, no prospective studies of the developmental course of early and later diagnosis of autism spectrum disorders from 14 months of age exist.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: autism screening and diagnosis,autism spectrum disorder,
Title: 'Do It Yourself' in the parent-professional partnership for the assessment and diagnosis of children with autism spectrum conditions in Hong Kong: a qualitative study.
Abstract:
Timely and appropriate care for children with autism spectrum conditions is affected by the interaction between healthcare professionals and parents. Despite the importance of the parent-professional partnership, there is a dearth of cultural-specific data on parent-professional partnership in the Chinese context. We conducted 10 in-depth life-history interviews with parents of children with autism spectrum conditions in Hong Kong who were diagnosed during preschool years. Using an interpretative phenomenological analytic method, five themes were constructed to represent the context of parent-professional partnership in Hong Kong along the pathway of seeking a diagnosis: (a) access to the assessment and diagnosis of autism spectrum conditions, (b) multiple procedures of assessment, (c) consultation prior to diagnosis and assessment, (d) communication of diagnosis and assessment result and (e) post-assessment isolation. Parental narratives highlight the important domains of parent-professional partnership and reflect the complexity of diagnosis and the lack of a cohesive system. For many parents, the assessment procedure was marred by a series of obstacles, which were further exacerbated by a poorly developed parent-professional partnership. Suggestions for parent-professional partnership development include establishing an evidence-based best practice guideline for Hong Kong, creating pre-assessment information workshops for parents to attend and equipping professionals with knowledge about autism spectrum conditions and enhanced communication skills.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: adult behavior disorders,autism in adults,autism screening and diagnosis,
Title: Diagnosis as a social determinant: the development of prosocial behaviour before and after an autism spectrum diagnosis.
Abstract:
Jutel and Nettleton (2011) discuss diagnosis as not only a major classification tool for medicine but also an interactive social process that itself may have ramifications for health. Consideration of diagnosis as a social determinant of health outcomes led to the formulation of our research question: Can we detect a change in the development of prosocial symptoms before and after an Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) diagnosis? We examined the developmental trajectory of prosocial skills of children, as impairment in social skills is given as a core symptom for children with ASD. We used a validated scale measuring prosocial behaviour for a sample of 57 children where the measure was repeatedly recorded over ten years. We plotted the developmental trajectory of the prosocial trait in this sample who were enrolled in a longitudinal birth cohort study based in South West England. Multi-factorial fixed effect modelling suggests that the developmental trajectory of this measure of behaviour was not significantly altered by ASD diagnosis, or the consequences of diagnosis, either for better or worse. Further analysis was conducted on a subset of 33 of the children who had both pre-diagnosis and post-diagnosis information, and the same result obtained. The results indicate that prosocial behaviours may be resistant to typical 'treatments': provision of educational and specialist health services triggered by a clinical ASD diagnosis. The implications of this for considering diagnosis as a social determinant are discussed.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: teenage behavior disorders,autism screening and diagnosis,autism spectrum disorder,