Results for Personality  
Title: Severe (psychopathic) personality disorder: a review.
Abstract:
The development of the concept, causes and management of severe (psychopathic) personality disorder is reviewed against the current background of government concern about the activities of a small group of individuals alleged to be showing the disorder to a dangerous degree. The authors acknowledge the problems involved in 'labelling' the disorder. The term psychopathic has a somewhat chequered history. It did not enter U.K. legislation until the Mental Health Act 1959. To this extent, it is a legal term and does not equate to any exact degree with the clinical descriptions currently in use. However, the term 'psychopathic disorder' will be used as a kind of shorthand for variants in everyday use. It is important to note that in this contribution we are only considering those 'psychopaths' who have come to the attention of the criminal justice and mental health systems. There are also 'psychopaths' who, for a variety of reasons, have not come to official attention and a recent contribution by Board and Fritzon (2005) highlights some interesting common characteristics in business managers and a sample of forensic patients detained in high security establishments.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: antisocial personality disorder,
Title: Personality subtypes of suicidal adults.
Abstract:
Research into personality factors related to suicidality suggests substantial variability among suicide attempters. A potentially useful approach that accounts for this complexity is personality subtyping. As part of a large sample looking at personality pathology, this study used Q-factor analysis to identify subtypes of 311 adult suicide attempters using Shedler-Westen Assessment Procedure-II personality profiles. Identified subtypes included internalizing, emotionally dysregulated, dependent, hostile-isolated, psychopathic, and anxious somatizing. Subtypes differed in hypothesized ways on criterion variables that address their construct validity, including adaptive functioning, Axis I and II comorbidity, and etiology-related variables (e.g., history of abuse). Furthermore, dimensional ratings of the subtypes predicted adaptive functioning above DSM-based diagnoses and symptoms.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: adult behavior disorders,borderline personality disorder,
Title: The effect of ostracism upon mood in youth with borderline personality disorder.
Abstract:
The experience of rejection or abandonment in Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) can lead to profound changes in affect. Yet, the intensity, duration, and type of mood changes that occur in response to rejection remain unclear. This study examined the effect of ostracism upon mood in 30 outpatient youth diagnosed with BPD and 22 healthy community control participants (aged 15-24). Cyberball, a virtual balltoss game, was used to simulate ostracism and 13 mood states were recorded before, immediately after, and 15 minutes after the game. The results showed that while ostracism induced changes in anger, rejection, surprise, suspicion, and joy, there were no differences in the pattern of emotional responding and regulation between the two groups. The BPD group consistently rated their mood as more intense across all 13 mood states and across time compared with the control group. These findings suggest that, compared to healthy individuals, those youth with BPD experience negative emotions as more intense and that in mild cases of interpersonal rejection, their emotional responding and regulation are similar to their healthy peers.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords:  lead,teenage behavior disorders,adult behavior disorders,borderline personality disorder,
Title: Antisocial Personality Disorder among Prison Inmates: The Mediating Role of Schema-Focused Therapy
Abstract:

This study investigated the mediating role of schema-focused therapy in the treatment of antisocial personality disorder among prison inmates. The participants of the study were three hundred (300) prison inmates of Agodi Prison in Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria. The instruments used for the study were Antisocial Personality Disorder Self- Test (APDSF), deployed for screening the participants, and Antisocial Personality Disorder Symptoms Questionnaire (APDSQ) developed by the researcher. Pre-test Post-Test, control group experimental design was adopted for this study. The data were analysed using ANCOVA. There was significant main effect of treatment on antisocial personality disorder of the prison inmates. There was significant interaction effect of treatment of participants based on gender. There was also significant interaction effect of treatment on prison inmates based on time of incarceration.


Sources: Omics Online
Keywords: Agodi prison,Antisocial Personality Disorder Symptoms Questionnaire (APDSQ),Antisocial Personality Disorder Self- Test (APDSF),Dissocial personality disorder,psychopathy,
Title: Overcoming Barriers to Skills Training in Borderline Personality Disorder: A Qualitative Interview Study.
Abstract:
Despite evidence suggesting that skills training is an important mechanism of change in dialectical behaviour therapy, little research exploring facilitators and barriers to this process has been conducted. The study aimed to explore clients' experiences of barriers to dialectical behaviour therapy skills training and how they felt they overcame these barriers, and to compare experiences between treatment completers and dropouts. In-depth qualitative interviews were conducted with 40 clients with borderline personality disorder who had attended a dialectical behaviour therapy programme. A thematic analysis of participants' reported experiences found that key barriers to learning the skills were anxiety during the skills groups and difficulty understanding the material. Key barriers to using the skills were overwhelming emotions which left participants feeling unable or unwilling to use them. Key ways in which participants reported overcoming barriers to skills training were by sustaining their commitment to attending therapy and practising the skills, personalising the way they used them, and practising them so often that they became an integral part of their behavioural repertoire. Participants also highlighted a number of key ways in which they were supported with their skills training by other skills group members, the group therapists, their individual therapist, friends and family. Treatment dropouts were more likely than completers to describe anxiety during the skills groups as a barrier to learning, and were less likely to report overcoming barriers to skills training via the key processes outlined above. The findings of this qualitative study require replication, but could be used to generate hypotheses for testing in further research on barriers to skills training, how these relate to dropout, and how they can be overcome. The paper outlines several such suggestions for further research.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: borderline personality disorder,anxiety,
Title: Somatosensory processing and borderline personality disorder: pain perception and a signal detection analysis of proprioception and exteroceptive sensitivity.
Abstract:
Approximately two thirds of those with borderline personality disorder (BPD) who self-injure report diminished sensitivity to pain during acts of self-harm. Research on pain perception suggests that abnormalities of the motivational-affective domain likely contribute to the commonly reported hypo-analgesia evidenced in BPD. It is not that BPD individuals cannot detect or feel painful stimuli, rather their response to it seems to reflect differences in tolerance and willingness to report a stimulus as painful. Although specific processes involved with pain insensitivity have been debated in literature, the likelihood of generalized dysfunction in the somatosensory systems in BPD has not been considered. Prior BPD research has focused only on the pain submodality of somatosensation. This study assessed pain perception (nociception), basic touch (exteroception), and body sense (proprioception) somatosensory submodalities, in an effort to determine if generalized somatosensory deficits are present in BPD. Subjects diagnosed with DSM-IV BPD (n = 27) were compared with individuals who had a history of major depressive disorder with no current psychopathology (n = 20), and normal controls (n = 44), all drawn from a community setting. Individuals with BPD evidenced higher pain endurance and tolerance, but did not demonstrate generalized somatosensory deficits, as evidenced by appropriate functioning on tasks of exteroceptive and proprioceptive sensitivity. Findings are consistent with (but do not prove) a specific dysfunction in the pain-specific mechanism of sensitivity and perception in BPD, perhaps one that does not disturb the other somatosensory modalities. These data help to provide a firmer empirical basis for pain insensitivity as an endophenotype for BPD.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: teenage behavior disorders,adult behavior disorders,borderline personality disorder,
Title: Altered emotional information processing in borderline personality disorder: an electrophysiological study.
Abstract:
Emotional dysregulation is one of the key symptoms of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). In the present study it is hypothesized that borderline patients display a cortical hyper-responsivity to emotional stimuli compared with a healthy control group. Further, we aimed to examine whether BPD patients were able to suppress stimuli with negative emotional valence as well as healthy control participants could. This is the first study addressing the electrophysiological processing of emotional stimuli in BPD. The electrophysiological response to emotional information was studied among 30 BPD patients and compared with the response in 30 normal controls using event-related potentials (ERPs). Participants were shown pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System with neutral, positive, and negative valence. After performing an attentional task, the participants were asked to perform a reappraisal task. The assignment was to consciously suppress emotions that might occur after viewing pictures with an unpleasant content. Borderline patients displayed larger late positive potentials (LPP) to pictures with an unpleasant valence as compared with the control group, indicating an enhanced elaborative processing of unpleasant stimuli. However, they did not differ on the reappraisal task. Borderline patients show an enhanced emotional cortical reactivity to unpleasant stimuli as compared with a control group. This suggests an emotional dysfunctioning in BPD patients. This feature might be an important focus in the treatment of BPD.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: teenage behavior disorders,adult behavior disorders,borderline personality disorder,
Title: Serotonergic sensitivity in borderline personality disorder: preliminary findings.
Abstract:
Twelve patients with borderline personality disorder and 15 healthy comparison subjects were challenged with single doses of oral m-chlorophenylpiperazine (m-CPP) and placebo. Following m-CPP, the patients experienced decreased anger and fear. Seven of the 12 patients reported a "spacy," "high," depersonalized/derealized experience following m-CPP, which was confirmed by clinicians' ratings. Compared with the normal male subjects, the male patients with borderline personality disorder had higher cortisol levels and marginally blunted prolactin responses after receiving m-CPP. These results suggest serotonergic dysfunction in borderline personality disorder.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: receptors,adult behavior disorders,borderline personality disorder,
Title: No evidence for overgeneral memories in borderline personality disorder.
Abstract:
The hypothesis that borderline personality disorder (BPD) is related to overgeneral memories was tested in a mixed sample of 39 patients. A memory test with emotional cue words and the instruction to produce specific autobiographical memories was used. Specificity was judged by an independent rater. Regression analyses indicated that age and major depressive disorder were related to the production of less specific memories, whereas educational level and presence of personality disorder were positivily related to number of specific memories. Borderline personality disorder, anxiety disorders and childhood traumas were not related to number of specific memories.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: adult behavior disorders,borderline personality disorder,
Title: Inpatient nursing care of patients with borderline personality disorder: a review of the literature.
Abstract:
The present paper reviews the literature on inpatient nursing care of patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD). An overview of the background, major features, recent conceptualizations and predicted outcomes for sufferers of BPD is provided. Literature related to treatment and inpatient nursing care is also discussed. It is argued that nurses are in a position of having to provide care that is less than optimal and that may recreate the victimization and traumatization of the patient's childhood. In addition, without adequate education, support and supervision, nurses may experience significant occupational stress arising from their work with this group of patients.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: borderline personality disorder,
Title: Can assessors and therapists predict the outcome of long-term psychotherapy in borderline personality disorder?
Abstract:
Surprisingly few studies have investigated the accuracy of prognostic assessments of therapy outcome by clinicians. The objective of the present study was to investigate the relationship between clinicians' prognostic assessments and patient characteristics and treatment outcome. Seventy-one patients with a borderline personality disorder randomly allocated to schema-focused therapy (SFT) or transference-focused psychotherapy (TFP) were assessed every 3 months for 3 years. Prognostic assessments proved to be unrelated to patients' biographical (i.e., age, gender, education level, and employment level) and clinical characteristics (i.e., number of Axis I and Axis II diagnoses, and severity of psychiatric symptoms or borderline personality pathology). Clinical assessors as well as therapists rated the probability of success for SFT to be higher than for TFP. Prospective assessments of assessors and therapists accurately predicted different indices of outcome above and independent of patient characteristics. The prediction of outcome in the TFP condition in particular proved to be valid. Identifying prognostic markers of treatment outcome as used by clinicians in their prognostic assessments may improve current prediction models and patient-treatment matching.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: adult behavior disorders,borderline personality disorder,
Title: Beliefs in personality disorders: a test with the personality disorder belief questionnaire.
Abstract:
The hypothesis that each personality disorder (PD) is characterized by a specific set of beliefs was tested in a sample of 643 subjects, including non-patient controls, axis-I and axis-II patients, diagnosed with SCID-I and -II interviews. Beliefs of six PDs (avoidant, dependent, obsessive-compulsive, paranoid, histrionic, borderline) were assessed with the Personality Disorder Belief Questionnaire (PDBQ). Factor analyses supported the existence of six hypothesized sets of beliefs. Structural equation modeling (SEM) supported the hypothesis that each PD is characterized by a specific set of beliefs. Path coefficients were however in the medium range, suggesting that PDs are not solely determined by beliefs. Nevertheless, empirically derived cutoff scores of the six belief subscales were reasonably successful in classifying subjects, percentages ranging form 51% to 83%. It appeared that there was a monotonical increase in scores on each belief subscale from non-patient controls, to patients without any PD, to patients with PDs (other than the pertinent PD), to patients with the pertinent PD. This suggests that PD-related beliefs are at least partly associated with (personality) psychopathology in general. Another explanation is that many patients' position on the underlying dimensions is not high enough to lead to a DSM PD diagnosis, but high enough to lead to an elevated belief score.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: adult behavior disorders,borderline personality disorder,
Title: Rejection sensitivity is a mediator between borderline personality disorder features and facial trust appraisal.
Abstract:
Individuals with borderline personality disorder (BPD) fear abandonment and exhibit instability in their close relationships. These interpersonal difficulties may be influenced by the propensity to interpret neutral social stimuli (e.g., nonemotional faces) as untrustworthy. This study evaluated the hypothesis that BPD features are associated with attributions of untrustworthiness to neutral faces. Additionally, the authors hypothesized that the trait of rejection sensitivity (RS) is also associated with BPD features and mediates the relationship between BPD features and untrustworthy facial trait appraisal. An undergraduate, nonclinical sample (N = 95) was assessed for BPD features, RS, and trust appraisal of neutral faces. Higher BPD features were associated with lower ratings of trustworthiness of the faces and higher scores on RS. Furthermore, as hypothesized, the association between BPD features and trust appraisal was mediated by RS. Results are discussed in the context of a proposed model of the social cognitive mechanisms of interpersonal hypersensitivity in BPD.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: teenage behavior disorders,adult behavior disorders,borderline personality disorder,
Title: Predictors of dropout among personality disorders in a specialist outpatients psychosocial treatment: a preliminary study.
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to identify factors that may affect treatment retention in a 1-year psychosocial program for adult personality disorders.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: adult behavior disorders,borderline personality disorder,
Title: Adaptation and Validation of the Standardized Assessment of Personality ? Abbreviated Scale as a Self-Administered Screening Test (SA-SAPAS)
Abstract:

Personality disorder assessments are time-intensive and require trained interviewers. They are unlikely to be performed on a routine basis. In clinical and general populations, there is a requirement for short and robust self-administered screening tests for personality disorders. We first translated the original form of the SAPAS into French and validated it in a clinical sample (n=28). This adaptation revealed properties similar to those of the original version. The first and second studies validated the adaptation of the SA-SAPAS as a self-administered questionnaire in clinical (n=45) and general (n=186) populations. We were able to use the same cut-off (score ≥ 2) in both the clinical and general populations and this permitted correct identification in 89% of the clinical subjects (sensitivity of 97.3%; specificity of 50%) and 86% in the general population (sensitivity of 87.5%; specificity of 85.7%). These results suggest possible applications for researchers and clinicians, either as a routine screening test or as a selection tool in both general and clinical populations.


Sources: Omics Online
Keywords: Personality disorders; Personality assessment; Screening tests,Clinical psychology,Psychiatry,
Title: EXPLORING THE MEDIATING ROLE OF CUSTOMER LOYALTY ON THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN BRAND AFFECT, BRAND QUALITY, BRAND PERSONALITY, AND CUSTOMERS’ BRAND EXTENSION ATTITUDE IN FASHION WEAR
Abstract:
The study was to explore the relationship of brand affect, brand quality and brand personality towards brand extension attitude. It was further intended to explore either customer loyalty mediates the relationships of brand affect and brand extension attitude, brand quality and brand extension attitude and brand personality and brand extension attitude. The study was causal in nature and data was collected from 240 female users of fashion wear of 03 famous brands. The results showed that customer loyalty mediates all the relationship of the study and brand affect, brand quality, brand personality are significantly associated with customer loyalty and brand extension attitude.

Sources: Omics Online
Keywords: Brand Affect,Brand Quality,Brand Personality,Brand Extension Attitude.,
Title: Emotional responses in borderline personality disorder and depression: assessment during an acute crisis and 8 months later.
Abstract:
Stability of subjective emotional responses to positive and negative film stimuli was examined in female patients with borderline personality disorder (BPD, n=30), depressed patients (n=27) and a non-clinical control group (n=30). At first assessment (t1) clinical participants were inpatients. The second assessment was conducted 8 months later, when clinical participants were not in an acute crisis. Positive emotions and other-focused negative emotions were successfully induced in all participants. Altogether, more negative baseline emotionality describes both patient groups better than differences in emotional reactivity. Our findings contradict the hypothesis of general emotional hyperreactivity in BPD patients for both positive and negative emotions.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: adult behavior disorders,borderline personality disorder,
Title: Brief report: relationships between facets of impulsivity and borderline personality features.
Abstract:
Relationships between specific borderline personality disorder (BPD) features and facets of impulsivity (negative and positive urgency, premeditation, perseverance, and sensation seeking) were examined in a sample of 227 undergraduate students, oversampled to include many with elevations on a measure of borderline features. Most facets of impulsivity were positively correlated with borderline features, except for sensation seeking, which showed a mixed pattern of relationships with specific BPD features. In regression models, negative urgency was the strongest predictor of all BPD features scales, including affective instability, identity problems, negative relationships, and self-harm. Premeditation, positive urgency, and sensation seeking demonstrated incremental validity over negative urgency in predicting some BPD features; however, significant beta weights were negative for sensation seeking, suggesting that it may be protective or adaptive for BPD, unlike other forms of impulsivity. This study provides evidence for variation in how types of impulsivity contribute to different BPD features and demonstrates the importance of examining BPD features on the subscale level.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: teenage behavior disorders,adult behavior disorders,borderline personality disorder,
Title: Staff nurse perceptions of the impact of mentalization-based therapy skills training when working with borderline personality disorder in acute mental health: a qualitative study.
Abstract:
People diagnosed with borderline personality disorder (BPD) are highly prevalent in acute mental health wards, with staff nurses identifying a challenge in working with people who can be significantly distressed. This has contributed to a negative stereotype verging on stigmatization. Mentalization-based therapy (MBT) is a psychological therapy which has been shown to be of benefit to people with a diagnosis of BPD, yet it has been utilized and evaluated only in partial hospitalization and outpatient settings. Despite this, most people diagnosed with BPD will continue to be treated in generic inpatient settings such as acute mental health. Mentalization-based therapy skills training (MBT-S) is a new and cost-effective 2-day workshop aiming to provide generalist practitioners with MBT skills for use in generic settings. This study aimed to capture staff perceptions of the impact of MBT-S on their practice when working with people with a diagnosis of BPD in acute mental health. Through two focus groups, this study assessed the perceptions of nine staff nurses. An interpretive phenomenological approach was utilized in data analysis. Participants found the approach easy to grasp, improving of consistency between staff and flexible in its use in planned or 'off the cuff' discussions. MBT-S promoted empathy and humane responses to self-harm, impacted on participants ability to tolerate risk and went some way to turning the negative perception of BPD through changing the notion of patients as 'deliberately difficult'. Staff felt empowered and more confident in working with people with a diagnosis of BPD. The positive implication for practice was the ease in which the approach was adopted and participants perception of MBT-S as an empowering skill set which also contributed to attitudinal change. In acute mental health environments, which may not have the resources to provide long-term structured treatments to patients, MBT-S could be viewed as ideal as participants applauded its flexibility. The promotion of empathy also sees a move away from iatrogenic damage caused by unhelpful responses to self-harm. In the context of wider research, this study shows that staff nurses find the MBT-S skill set valuable in the generic inpatient setting of acute mental health.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: borderline personality disorder,
Title: Working around a contested diagnosis: borderline personality disorder in adolescence.
Abstract:
This discourse analytic study sits at the intersection of everyday communications with young people in mental health settings and the enduring sociological critique of diagnoses in psychiatry. The diagnosis of borderline personality disorder (BPD) is both contested and stigmatized, in mental health and general health settings. Its legitimacy is further contested within the specialist adolescent mental health setting. In this setting, clinicians face a quandary regarding the application of adult diagnostic criteria to an adolescent population, aged less than 18 years. This article presents an analysis of interviews undertaken with Child and Adolescent Mental Health Services (CAMHS) clinicians in two publicly funded Australian services, about their use of the BPD diagnosis. In contrast with notions of primacy of diagnosis or of transparency in communications, doctors, nurses and allied health clinicians resisted and subverted a diagnosis of BPD in their work with adolescents. We delineate specific social and discursive strategies that clinicians displayed and reflected on, including: team rules which discouraged diagnostic disclosure; the lexical strategy of hedging when using the diagnosis; the prohibition and utility of informal 'borderline talk' among clinicians; and reframing the diagnosis with young people. For clinicians, these strategies legitimated their scepticism and enabled them to work with diagnostic uncertainty, in a population identified as vulnerable. For adolescent identities, these strategies served to forestall a BPD trajectory, allowing room for troubled adolescents to move and grow. These findings illuminate how the contest surrounding this diagnosis in principle is expressed in everyday clinical practice.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: teenage behavior disorders,adult behavior disorders,borderline personality disorder,