Results for audiometry  
Title: Speech audiometry is impaired in Parkinson's disease
Abstract:
Objective: To find out hearing ability and speech discrimination of Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. Background: We have recently demonstrated age-dependent peripheral, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss in PD patients by means of Pure Tone Audiometry (PTA). PTA provides only a partial picture of the patient's auditory status and gives no information about patient's ability to hear and understand speech. Methods: 40 consecutive patients with clinical diagnosis of PD were screened. Severity of motor symptoms and staging were measured with the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale (section III) and the Hoehn and Yahr scale. Audiometric evaluation consisted of a comprehensive audiologic case history and questionnaire, visual otoscopic examination, acoustic immittance measures (tympanogram and acoustic reflexes), pure tone and speech audiometry (SA). Healthy age- and sex-matched subjects were selected as control group. Results: 40 patients were enrolled (22 M e 18 F; average age 68 ys). PTA confirmed our previous finding of age-dependent high-frequency hearing loss in PD patients as compared with both normative values and healthy age- and sex-matched controls (p = 0.005 and p < 0.001, respectively). Vocal curve showed reduced slope in 60% of PD patients as compared with normal controls. Moreover, almost all PD patients (85%) showed a tonal-vocal dissociation with a non significant rollover phenomenon (27%). Conclusions: Our results confirmed an age-dependent, sensorineural hearing loss in PD patients as compared with healthy subjects. Moreover, SA showed impaired speech discrimination in PD patients as compared with control group. Increased tonal-vocal dissociation together with a weak rollover phenomenon suggest a peripheral more than central origin of hearing impairment in PD patients.

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: audiometry,
Title: Speech Audiometry in Clinical Evaluation
Abstract:
Speech audiometry has become a fundamental tool in hearing-loss assessment. In conjunction with pure-tone audiometry, it can aid in determining the degree and type of hearing loss. Speech audiometry also provides information regarding discomfort or tolerance to speech stimuli and information on word recognition abilities. In addition, information gained by speech audiometry can help determine proper gain and maximum output of hearing aids and other amplifying devices for patients with significant hearing losses and help assess how well they hear in noise. Speech audiometry also facilitates audiological rehabilitation management. The Technique section of this article describes speech audiometry for adult patients. For pediatric patients, see the Pediatric Speech Materials section below.

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: audiometry,
Title: The cross-check principle in pediatric audiometry.
Abstract:
We discuss a method of pediatric audiologic assessment that employs the "cross-check principle". That is, the results of a single test are cross-checked by an independent test measure. Particularly useful in pediatric evaluations as cross-checks of behavioral test results are impedance audiometry and brain-stem-evoked response audiometry (BSER). We present five cases highlighting the value of the cross-check principle in pediatric audiologic evaluation.

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: audiometry,
Title: Evoked Potential Audiometry in Aquatic Mammals
Abstract:
Investigation of the influence of noise on the hearing of aquatic mammals requires appropriate methods of audiometry to assess any temporal or permanent hearing sensitivity shift. The auditory evoked potential (AEP) method is widely used for this purpose. It does not require long training of the subject, is not time consuming, and therefore may be used in short-term captivity conditions (on the catch-and-release basis) and in wild conditions (in stranded animals). The method is the most productive in odontocetes because of the unique features of their auditory system (hypertrophy of the auditory nerve centers, high AEP amplitude, and capability to produce AEP at high rates of stimulus presentation [Supin et al. 2001 ] ). However, the efficiency of AEP audiometry depends on the version of the method used. Here, the influences of probe stimulus type, data collection, and processing manner are considered.

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: audiometry,
Title: A comparison of pure-tone thresholds as measured by delayed feedback audiometry, electrodermal response audiometry, and voluntary response audiometry
Abstract:
One hundred unselected patients seen for medical-legal evaluation were tested for pure-tone thresholds by delayed feedback audiometry (DFA), electrodermal response audiometry (EDRA), and voluntary response audiometry (VRA). The EDRA method was successful in 73% of the patients while the DFA method was successful in 88% of the patients. Eighty-six percent of the DFA thresholds obtained were within 10 dB of the patients' VRA thresholds. When both DFA and EDRA were successful, 88% of the DFA thresholds were within 10 dB of the EDRA thresholds. Ninety-six percent of the EDRA thresholds obtained were within 10 dB of the patients' VRA thresholds. Although DFA is not as precise in predicting threshold as is EDRA, it is successful in a significantly greater number of patients than is EDRA and is a useful clinical tool in medical-legal evaluation for hearing loss.

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: audiometry,
Title: Sound localization with phase audiometry
Abstract:
A 500 Hz pure tone is presented binaurally with earphones. The tone\nis adjusted to give a midline impression at confortable loudness\nlevel. An electronic variable time delay line unit and a generator\nfor randomizing the shift of the phase lag of the signal to the right\nor to the left ear, respectively, are used. By shortening the time\ndelay the threshold of the recognition of the phase difference is\nreached. At every test sequence the tone is first presented in the\ncenter of the head without delay and then with delay. The patient\nruns the test by indicating in which ear the tone is heard. The phase\ndifference is thus gradually reduced from 500 musec down to a threshold\nvalue of about 48 musec equal on right and left ears in normal-hearing\nsubjects. The results of phase audiometry on subjects with normal\nhearing and with different types of hearing losses are in good agreement\nwith the results of sound localization tests in free field. Phase\naudiometry seems to be of especial value in diagnosing retrocochlear\nlesions.

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: audiometry,
Title: Hearing Aid Selection by Brainstem Audiometry
Abstract:
Hearing aid selection and adjustment by means of brainstem audiometry was tested in 29 hearing impaired children. A projection procedure is introduced which employs normal and pathological intensity-amplitude functions. This method enables determination of some basic properties of appropriate hearing aids, such as average gain, type of compression, compression factor and onset level. Hearing aid evaluation is discussed for two examples of conductive and sensorineural impairment

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: audiometry,
Title: Brief-tone audiometry in pseudohypacusis.
Abstract:
Brief-tone audiometry was administered to two groups of listeners. The first group consisted of five sophisticated subjects with normal hearing, who were tested under normal and simulated hearing-loss conditions. The second group consisted of five patients with true pseudohypacusis. Results under simulated and true pseudohypacusic conditions were similar, but were different from those obtained from the normal listeners under normal conditions, which further extends the diagnostic value of brief-tone audiometry.

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: audiometry,
Title: Positional audiometry in the diagnosis of perilymphatic fistula
Abstract:
Fifty-eight cases with a presumptive clinical diagnosis of perilymphatic fistula (PLF) are described with the results of a positional audiometric test designed to detect the presence of air in the cochlea. All patients underwent tympanotomy and observations of the middle ear are recorded together with the results of treatment. A definite leak was found in 33 cases and none in 25, but grafting of the round and oval window was performed in all but 10 cases. Pure-tone audiometry was performed before and after a 30-minute period of positioning the patient horizontally with the affected ear uppermost. A change in audiometric thresholds was noted in the group where a presumptive diagnosis of PLF was made, including some of those not found to have leaks at operation. However these changes were not observed in the positional tests of a group of 22 patients with hearing losses attributable to other causes. Also, an abnormal air-bone gap was noted in the PLF group compared with the other group. Although the original two-frequency criteria of earlier studies applied to the positional test did not predict the operative findings (leak or no leak), new data on frequency specific changes are presented. It is possible that fistulas at the oval window may be associated with positional threshold change at 500 Hz, and those at the round window with changes at 8 kHz.

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: audiometry,
Title: EEG audiometry in the child with cerebral disorders
Abstract:
When a child presents with cerebral disorders electroencephalographic audiometry presents an important problem to the otologist who is often called on to give an opinion on auditory function in these cases and must often base his opinion on purely objective methods. In fact it is not always possible to carry out a conventional child audiometrical examination and sometimes the results obtained by conventional methods are quite false. Electroencephalographic audiometry carried out on subjects with cerebral lesions is a method which is sometimes difficult to interprete and is subject to criticism because of the possibilities of error. But it is an examination which is an important diagnostic tool, particularly in seriously handicapped subjects in whom it may be the only possible worthwhile audiological examination.

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: audiometry,
Title: Phase audiometry in neuroaudiological practice
Abstract:
Six groups of subjects, altogether 107 in number, were studied with\nphase audiometry. Three control groups were studied (normal-hearing\nhealthy controls, persons with cochlear hearing losses, and patients\nwith neurological disease not affecting the auditory system), and\nthree patient groups were studied (patients with cerebellopontine\nangle tumours, with brainstem lesions, and with temporal lobe lesions).\nTwo phase audiometers were used. The sensitivity was 85% for patients\nwith cerebellopontine angle tumours, 71% for patients with brainstem\nlesions, and 69% for patients with temporal lobe lesions. There was\ngood agreement between the phase audiometers, though one of them\n(BIAB Phase Audiometer) had better results for two of the patient\ngroups. Phase audiometry can be recommended in neuroaudiological\npractice.

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: audiometry,
Title: Collapse of the Ear Canal During Audiometry
Abstract:
The report by Ventry, Chaiklin, and Boyle of 2 cases of collapse of the external auditory canal during audiometry1 serves to emphasize a previously more or less neglected phenomenon and also to underline the importance of close professional interaction between otologist and audiologist. We began an investigation of the phenomenon of ear canal collapse during August, 1960. We were prompted to an investigation of this phenomenon more by observed and unexplained discrepancies between tuning fork observations and audiometric test results than by the inconsistencies in test results referred to by the previous writers. The possibility of ear canal collapse during audiometry was first suggested to us by a number of cases in which air-conduction bone-conduction gaps indicated by routine audiometry exceeded 20 db. but were not accompanied by negative Rinne responses when tuning forks were used. When a plastic stopple of the type used in preliminary hearing-aid evaluations was

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: audiometry,
Title: Clinical impedance audiometry
Abstract:
This manuscript has attempted to briefly outline the most important areas of clinical impedance audiometry. The author has emphasized the use of impedance audiometry in differentiating different types of middle ear pathology and utilizing the stapedial reflex in the determination of malingering as well as an overall test of the normal function of the auditory nervous system from the inner ear to brain stem. Finally, the use of Eustachian tube function can also be utilized by the trained audiologist in determining whether or not there is Eustachian tube dysfunction. It is important to again emphasize that impedance audiometry is objective and does not involve the cooperation of the patient. Thus in the autistic child and in the child who is uncooperative, it is of particular help to the clinical otologist and audiologist. In patients who are malingering the stapedial reflex may assist in determining a valid response in routine autiometry. Finally, with special types of tests which have not been discussed in this manuscript, such as stapedial reflex decay, one may be able to determine the presence of an early acoustic neurinoma.

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: audiometry,
Title: Speech audiometry.
Abstract:
Two aspects of speech audiometry, namely, the speech reception threshold and the speech discrimination scores, have been discussed in the light of their development and present day administration. Evidence was presented to forego the concept of phonetic balance in discrimination test messages for the preferable attributes of familiarity and equated list difficulty. Campbell's redistribution of the W-22 word lists was proposed as an available solution to one of these parameters. Some delineation of the single "maximal" discrimination score's relation to the prediction of the hearing impaired individual's ability to understand continuous discourse was offered. Diagnostic implications of speech audiometry were not treated.

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: audiometry,
Title: Response detection in respiration audiometry
Abstract:
The respiration of ten adults with normal hearing was monitored to determine how well changes in respiration could be detected after auditory stimulation. Three judges used two methods of response scoring. The first was without knowledge of signal presentation, and the second was with knowledge of signal presentation. Judges detected the presence of respiratory responses not only during signal presentations (hits) but also during silent intervals (false alarms). Hits and false alarms co-varied in a manner predicted by the theory of signal detectability. A low false alarm rate could be purchased only at the expense of a low hit rate. The implications of this finding for the clinical efficacy of respiration audiometry are considered.

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: audiometry,
Title: Clinical application of bone conduction audiometry
Abstract:
MANY otolaryngologists distrust bone conduction audiometry. Attempts to use it as a diagnostic tool in clinical practice have frequently been unsatisfactory and discouraging. It is true that some otologists have come to rely on the technic, but they have encountered difficulty when comparing results. Generally speaking, bone conduction audiometry is considered a relatively uncertain method which serves merely as a diagnostic supplement to tuning fork tests. DIFFICULTIES IN BONE CONDUCTION TESTING Four major reasons contribute to the current mistrust of bone conduction measurements. In the first place, many workers doubt the reliability of thresholds obtained by this method. They feel that a high margin of error is introduced by such factors as differences in positioning of the vibrator and in the pressure with which it is applied. However, Carhart and Hayes have shown that bone conduction thresholds can have good repeatability in clinical circumstances.1 They compared tests on 500 ears.

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: audiometry,
Title: [Audiometry findings, speech, impedance audiometry and BERA in acoustic neurinoma]
Abstract:
Audiometric examinations are essential in the diagnosis of acoustic neuroma. Experience with the diagnosis of 41 neurinomas of the acoustic nerve show, however, that the tactics of audiometric examinations vary from one case to the other. The basic examination is in all instances an accurate examination of the threshold of hearing. When the threshold is normal or there are slight or medium severe losses on the side of the lesion, the tympanogram, impedance and speech audiometry and BERA are supreme examinations and all other audiometric examinations are redundant. For BERA alone limiting losses are above 3000 to 4000 Hz. As soon as they pass at the above frequencies the borderline of 60 dB HL in proportion to the magnitude of these losses the amount of falsely positive findings increases rapidly and the importance of BERA in the diagnosis declines. The same applies to impedance audiometry if major losses interfere with medium and lower frequencies. In all these instances the importance of speech audiometry as well as of STAT (Supra Threshold Adaptation Test) increases, i.e. of traditional audiometric examinations, the latter of which can be used successfully also in very high losses round 80-90 dB HL.

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: audiometry,
Title: Subjective and objective audiometry
Abstract:
Audiometry uses physically precisely defined acoustic stimuli. The response can be either a subjective reaction of the patient such as to press a button, or it can be a physiological reaction that can be measured objectively such as the acoustic reflex of the stapedial muscle. The aims of both types of audiometry, subjective and objective, are the assessment, the localization and the quantification of hearing loss. Specifically selected subjective or objective tests, and combinations of both, are being used to answer different clinical questions related to audiometric screening, audiological diagnosis, and quantitative description of the hearing loss. The selection of tests should be designed to answer the specific question most effectively.

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: audiometry,
Title: Comparison of manual and computer-controlled audiometry using identical procedures.
Abstract:
Ten normal-hearing subjects were evaluated with both manual and computer controlled audiometry using the ascending threshold determination method as proposed by ISO. The study shows that the thresholds obtained with the two different techniques correlate well and that standard deviations for the test--retest difference are significantly lower in the computer-controlled situation. The results also indicate that computer-controlled audiometry may be of importance in general clinical applications giving rapid and reliable threshold determination.

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: audiometry,
Title: Clinical use of brainstem evoked response audiometry.
Abstract:
The preceeding cases were selected to illustrate the contribution of BER audiometry in threshold testing for infants and malingerers, diagnosis of VIIIth nerve tumors, and identification of brainstem lesions. We feel, however, that these represent only the fundamental applications of BER and that a whole new diagnostic dimension wil evolve. The day only limitations of which the authors are aware in the use of brainstem evoked response is that a patient with a high tone sensorineural hearing loss may have abnormal wave forms or, if the high tone loss is severe, the waves may be totally absent. Brainstem evoked responses are unaffected by anesthesia and drugs. The patient does have to be relatively quiet during the test; this can be accomplished with sedation, if necessary.

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: audiometry,