Results for medications  
Title: Potentially inappropriate medications used by the elderly: prevalence and risk factors in Brazilian care homes.
Abstract:
The use of potentially inappropriate medications (PIM) among the elderly is a serious public health problem because it is intrinsically linked to increased morbidity and mortality, causing high costs to public health systems. This study's objective was to verify the prevalence of and the factors associated with the use of PIMs by elderly Brazilians in institutional settings.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: adverse effects,taking dental medications,
Title: Comparison of patients' compliance with prescribed oral and inhaled asthma medications.
Abstract:
Noncompliance with medications is one of the most serious problems facing health care today. However, methods to measure compliance have many limitations.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: asthma medications,
Title: Persistent cough in children and the overuse of medications.
Abstract:
Children referred for persistent cough were evaluated for the referring and final diagnosis, and the extent of the use of medications prior to referral and the side effects encountered.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: antibiotics,achalasia,acid reflux gastroesophageal reflux disease,acid reflux in infants and children,children and acid reflux,children and gastroesophageal reflux disease,asthma medications,
Title: Short look-back periods in pharmacoepidemiologic studies of new users of antibiotics and asthma medications introduce severe misclassification.
Abstract:
The aim of this study was to quantify the effect of the look back period on the misclassification of new users of antibiotics and asthma medications.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: antibiotics,drug,asthma medications,
Title: Asthma medications: basic pharmacology and use in the athlete.
Abstract:
Asthma is a chronic disease that affects athletes at all levels of sport. Several categories of drugs, including relatively new agents, are available to treat the asthmatic patient. By understanding the appropriate uses and effects of these drugs, the athletic trainer can assist the asthmatic athlete in improving therapeutic outcomes from the asthma therapy. The appropriate use of these medications includes not only the use of the appropriate drug(s), but also appropriate technique for administration, compliance with the prescribed dosing intervals, and sufficient care to avoid side effects.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: asthma medications,
Title: Complementary and alternative medicine use and adherence to asthma medications among Latino and non-Latino white families.
Abstract:
The current study sought to evaluate patterns of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) use in a sample of Latino and non-Latino white (NLW) children with asthma to determine whether parental beliefs about conventional medications and barriers to obtaining these medications were related to CAM use and to assess whether CAM use was associated with decreased adherence to controller medications.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: montelukast,hormones,allergy to drugs,asthma medications,
Title: An examination of the bleeding complications associated with herbal supplements, antiplatelet and anticoagulant medications.
Abstract:
Dental professionals routinely treat patients taking prescription, nonprescription, and herbal medications that are known or have the potential to alter bleeding. Prescription anticoagulant and antiplatelet medications, as well as over-the-counter drugs such as aspirin, are typically taken to reduce the risk of thromboembolic events, including stroke. Herbal supplements are widely used for a variety of indications, and both patients and health care practitioners are often unaware of the anticoagulant and antiplatelet effects that occur as either predictable pharmacologic effects or adverse side effects of herbal medicines. In addition, patient use of these herbal supplements is usually undisclosed to health care providers. The purpose of this literature review is to examine the mechanisms of action of drugs and herbs that alter bleeding, and to educate dental professionals as to the proper care and management of patients using these medications. Decision-making strategies, including interpretation of laboratory tests, and when to discontinue the use of these medications are discussed. Patients undergoing routine dental and dental hygiene procedures do not need to discontinue the use of anticoagulant and antiplatelet medications. However, alterations in drug use may be required for those patients undergoing invasive surgical procedures. It is recommended that herbal supplements must be discontinued 2 weeks prior to receiving invasive surgical procedures. Dental practitioners must learn to weigh the risks of discontinuing drug therapy against the potential risks to patients, and implement risk reduction strategies to minimize adverse bleeding complications associated with dental treatment.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: adverse effects,taking dental medications,inhibitors,
Title: Utilization of anti-asthma medications in two Quebec populations of anti-asthma medication users: a prescription database analysis.
Abstract:
This study describes the utilization of anti-asthma medications in two groups of users of such medications in the province of Quebec, Canada, during the year from June 1, 1990, to May 31, 1991. It is based on a secondary analysis of existing data banks recording the medications reimbursed by two government-funded ambulatory drug reimbursement programs that cover individuals aged 65 and over (seniors) and income security (welfare) recipients (ISRs). The study analyzed the use of the anti-asthma medications included in the list of medications eligible for reimbursement for program beneficiaries. Use was studied in two random samples of individuals who had at least one prescription filled for an anti-asthma medication (2566 seniors and 3695 ISRs). The most commonly used medication in both groups was inhaled salbutamol 100 mcg. Various forms of theophylline tablets were also used by a high proportion of the sample studied. Over 75% of the seniors and 68% of the ISR group used at least one form of theophylline during the course of the year. Inhaled corticosteroids were used by 43% of the seniors and by 36% of the ISR group, and sympathomimetics (beta 2-agonists), by 63% of seniors and 68% of ISRs.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: salbutamol,asthma medications,
Title: Risk of esophageal and gastric adenocarcinomas in relation to use of calcium channel blockers, asthma drugs, and other medications that promote gastroesophageal reflux.
Abstract:
Incidence of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia has risen dramatically over the past 2 decades in the U. S., for reasons that are not yet clear. A number of common medications (e.g., calcium channel blockers, tricyclic antidepressants, and certain asthma medications) promote gastroesophageal reflux by relaxing the lower esophageal sphincter (LES). Reflux is thought to increase cancer risk by promoting cellular proliferation, and by exposing the esophageal epithelium to potentially genotoxic gastric and intestinal contents. Recent studies have suggested that calcium channel blockers may also increase cancer risk by inhibiting apoptosis. Using personal interview data from a multicenter, population-based case-control study conducted between 1993 and 1995 in three areas of the U. S., we evaluated whether the use of LES-relaxing drugs was associated with increased risk of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia. Cases of esophageal adenocarcinoma (n = 293) and gastric cardia adenocarcinoma (n = 261) were compared with general population controls (n = 695). Information on additional case groups of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (n = 221) and noncardia gastric cancer (n = 368) were also available for comparison. Overall, 27.4% of controls had used one or more of these drugs for at least 6 months, compared with 30.2% of esophageal adenocarcinoma and 23.8% of gastric cardia adenocarcinoma cases. The adjusted odds ratios (ORs) for ever use were 1.0 [95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.7-1.5] and 0.8 (95% CI = 0.5-1.1), respectively. There was little evidence of increasing risk with increasing duration of use of all LES-relaxing drugs together. We found an increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma among persons reporting use of asthma drugs containing theophylline (OR = 2.5; 95% CI = 1.1-5.6) or beta agonists (OR = 1.7; 95% CI = 0.8-3.8). Risks were higher among long-term users (>5 years) of these drugs (OR = 3.1; 95% CI = 0.9-10.3 and OR = 2.3; 95% CI = 0.8-7.0, respectively). In contrast, there was no evidence that the use of calcium channel blockers or other specific groups of drugs increased the risk of any of the cancers studied. These results provide reassuring evidence that the increases in incidence of adenocarcinomas of the esophagus and gastric cardia are not likely to be related to the use of LES-relaxing drugs as a group, or calcium channel blockers in particular, but they do suggest that persons treated for long-standing asthma may be at increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: cancer,apoptosis,calcium,acid reflux gastroesophageal reflux disease,asthma medications,
Title: Emergency department visits for acute asthma by adults who ran out of their inhaled medications.
Abstract:
This study was designed to determine the percentage of asthma-related emergency department (ED) visits made by patients who recently ran out of their inhaled short-acting beta-agonists or inhaled corticosteroids and to characterize this understudied patient population. A secondary analysis was performed of data from four ED-based multicenter studies of acute asthma during 1996-1998 (n = 64 EDs). In each study, consecutive adult patients, aged 18-54 years, with acute asthma underwent a structured interview that assessed running out of inhaled medications. The analytic cohort comprised 1095 adults. Overall, 324 patients (30%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 27-32%) ran out of either of their inhaled beta-agonists or inhaled corticosteroids during the week before their index ED visit; 311 (28%; 95% CI, 26-31%) ran out of inhaled beta-agonists per se. Among a subset of 518 patients on inhaled corticosteroids, 55 patients (11%; 95% CI, 8-14%) ran out of inhaled corticosteroids. In the multivariable model, predictors of running out of an asthma medication were male sex, non-Hispanic black race, Hispanic ethnicity, no insurance, lower household income, and use of EDs as the preferred source of asthma prescriptions (all p < 0.05). Among patients who ran out of medications, 49% (95% CI, 43-55%) ran out of inhaled beta-agonists and 72% (95% CI, 58-84%) ran out of inhaled corticosteroids, before onset of their acute asthma symptoms. In 1095 adult ED patients with acute asthma, we found that 30% ran out of their inhaled asthma medications before the ED visit. Asthma patients who ran out of medications had sociodemographic characteristics that may help with identification of preventable ED visits. Multifaceted strategies needed to ensure optimal use of inhaled medications are warranted.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: hormones,asthma medications,allergy,rparkinson's disease,
Title: Provider-caregiver-child discussions about risks associated with asthma control medications: content and prevalence.
Abstract:
The objectives of this study were to: (1) describe the extent to which general pediatric providers discuss risks associated with asthma control medications with families, and (2) examine factors that are associated with risk discussions.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: adverse effects,asthma medications,
Title: Ten-year prescription trends of asthma medications in the management of childhood wheeze.
Abstract:
Asthma is the most common chronic disorder of childhood. The aim of this study was to assess prescription trends of asthma medications to provide a measure to evaluate treatment practices and compliance with established international practice guidelines. A retrospective study of data obtained from outpatient prescription databases (2001-2010) of the University Children's Medical Institute for children aged 0-18 years was performed. The following drugs were included: short-acting beta-agonists (SABAs), long-acting beta-agonists in combination with inhaled corticosteroids (LABA-ICSs), ICS, and leukotriene receptor antagonists. Statistical analysis of prescription trends was performed with linear regression to determine the trends in prescription of controller medications. From 2001 to 2010, the number of patients who were prescribed SABA increased significantly by 72% (p = 0.016). The increases in ICS patient numbers and ICS/SABA drug unit ratios were significant only in the school-going (>5 years) age group. There was a trend away from the use of nebulized SABA and ICS, although this was statistically insignificant. LABA-ICS patient numbers decreased significantly by 32.4% (p = 0.003), especially in preschoolers (1-5 years). There was a corresponding rise in montelukast patient numbers by 194.6% (p = 0.009) and montelukast/SABA ratio by 345.3% (p = 0.032) in preschoolers (aged 1-5 years). Montelukast patient numbers, but not the montelukast/SABA ratio, increased in school-going children. The move away from LABA-ICS combination especially in younger children and a tendency toward more montelukast usage is a reflection of practice preferences in accordance with current international guidelines in young children.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: montelukast,hormones,allergy to drugs,asthma medications,pediatrics,
Title: Inadequate parental understanding of asthma medications.
Abstract:
The parents of 128 children with asthma were interviewed about their knowledge of asthma medications. Simple understanding of the modes of action of these drugs was present in only 42.2% (for beta 2-agonists), 12.1% (methylxanthines), 11.7% (cromoglycate), 0% (inhaled corticosteroids), and 3.6% (oral corticosteroids) of parents. Simple understanding of when to use these drugs was present in 13.4% (beta 2-agonists), 4% (methylxanthines), 50% (cromoglycate), 47.1% (inhaled corticosteroids), and 0% (oral corticosteroids). Some understanding of the side effects was observed in 51.6% (beta 2-agonists), 40.4% (methylxanthines), 10% (cromoglycate), 5.9% (inhaled corticosteroids), and 25% (oral corticosteroids). Poor parental knowledge about the pharmacology of asthma was underlined by the inclusion of antibiotics, antihistamines, and decongestants as medications used in asthma. This study also uncovered the continuing misuse of compound methylxanthine preparations and non-selective sympathomimetics in a small percentage of patients.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: antibiotics,allergy to drugs,asthma medications,
Title: Differences by race/ethnicity in older adults' beliefs about the relative importance of dietary supplements vs prescription medications: results from the SURE Study.
Abstract:
Dietary supplement use is widespread among adults across races/ethnicities, yet reasons for use can vary across these groups. The Supplement Reporting (SURE) study quantified dietary supplement use and reasons for taking supplements in a multiethnic sample of adults who took at least one supplement. This study explored sociodemographic differences, including by race/ethnicity, associated with specific reasons/motivations for taking dietary supplements, including perceived importance of taking supplements relative to prescription medications. The study time period was March 2005 to August 2006. Participants (n=397) were older adults (ages 52 to 88 years) recruited from the Multiethnic Cohort Study in Hawaii and Los Angeles, CA, with equal representation of males and females from six ethnic groups (ie, white, Japanese American, Native Hawaiian, African American, US-born Latino, and foreign-born Latino). Subgroups of participants were compared by χ(2) tests and logistic regression. The most common reasons for taking supplements were to maintain a healthy life, because they were recommended by a health professional, and to prevent a disease/medical problem. A majority (76%) of participants reported that their dietary supplements were as important as prescription medications, with foreign-born Latinos and Japanese Americans being most likely to state this belief. The relative importance of supplements was not associated with excessive use, but 27% of participants exceeded the upper limit for a nutrient. It is crucial for health professionals to better understand why individuals take supplements and the importance that they attach to their use. This information could lead to better monitoring and education efforts to prevent overuse of supplements and possible interactions with medications.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords:  lead,taking dental medications,
Title: Management of dental patients taking common hemostasis-altering medications.
Abstract:
Millions of patients worldwide are taking medications that alter hemostasis and decrease the risk for thromboembolic events. This systematic review is intended to provide recommendations regarding optimal management of such patients undergoing invasive dental procedures. The primary focus of this report is on warfarin therapy, although issues related to heparin and aspirin are briefly discussed because of the frequency with which they are encountered in dental practice.

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: pesticides,tranexamic acid,taking dental medications,
Title: Stimulant medications.
Abstract:
OBJECTIVE: To review the short- and long-term safety and efficacy of stimulants for the treatment of children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). METHOD: A Medline search was conducted for both randomized controlled trials and reviews to determine the efficacy and safety of stimulant drugs for treating children with ADHD. Information was obtained on adverse events associated with their use, including their impact on height and weight gain during childhood. Animal data were reviewed for information on tolerance, sensitization, and the impact of high-dose stimulant effects on neurons and on the development of hepatic tumors. Human data on dopamine transporter occupancy by stimulants were also included. RESULTS: Stimulant treatment studies show robust short-term efficacy and a good safety profile. Longer-term studies are few in number but have produced no conclusive evidence that careful therapeutic use of these medications is harmful. CONCLUSION: Current evidence indicates that stimulants show efficacy and safety in studies lasting up to 24 months.

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: medications,stimulant,
Title: Medications in pregnancy.
Abstract:
Chronic medical problems and the various medications available to treat them represent an enormous volume of information for the practicing obstetrician. The agents commonly encountered are reviewed here and current literature is explored, where available, including the literature on folates in pregnancy.

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: medications,
Title: Medications in the workplace.
Abstract:
This article provides guidance and web-based resources regarding two\nfrequent practice issues associated with medications in the workplace:\ndispensing of over-the-counter (OTC) medications in the occupational\nhealth setting, and the proper disposal of expired or otherwise unwanted\nprescription and nonprescription medications.

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: medications,
Title: Medications as asthma triggers.
Abstract:
Certain medications can generate asthma symptoms, with the potential to cause considerable morbidity. This article focuses on the common drugs that have the potential to cause distinct respiratory reactions in asthmatics: aspirin and other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, beta-blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors. The means by which these medications can trigger asthma vary in terms of acuity of onset, severity, and the mechanisms involved. The general and most practical approach is avoidance and cautious use of these drugs in asthmatics. However, these classes of medications can exert a major role in the management of common and serious diseases. Fortunately, controller therapy for asthma and alternative or more selective medications for the treatment of these conditions are now available.

Sources: Mendeley
Keywords: medications,triggers,
Title: Prenatal factors and use of anti-asthma medications in early childhood: a population-based Danish birth cohort study.
Abstract:
To examine whether fetal growth indicators and other prenatal factors were associated with the use of anti-asthma medications during the first year of life, we conducted a follow-up study based on birth registry and prescription registry data of the county of North Jutland, Denmark. We identified 9705 singletons born between 1 April 1996 and 31 December 1997. They were followed to the end of the first year of life by linkage with a prescription registry. Prescription for asthma was defined as both a beta-agonist and an inhaled glucocorticoid prescription. A prescription for asthma was presented to 3.8% of the infants during the first year of life. Maternal asthma, male gender, maternal smoking, multiparous births, young maternal age, and maternal non-cohabitation were associated with the risk of receiving a prescription for asthma. There were slightly increased trends in the risk with birth weight and placental weight. The increased risk was more pronounced in the groups of birth weight > or = 3800 g (adjusted OR: 1.23, 95% CI: 0.88-1.73) and placental weight > or = 750 g (adjusted OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.10-1.88). The increased risk was also associated with a high ponderal index of > or = 2.7 g/cm3 (adjusted OR: 1.37, 95% CI: 1.06-1.76).

Sources: PubMed
Keywords: asthma medications,exposure,risks of smoking during pregnancy,