Geology deals with the composition of Earth materials, Earth structures, and Earth processes. Geology and Earth science are sometimes used synonymously to represent the scientific study of the earth and its components viz. lithosphere, atmosphere, hydrosphere and biosphere. The study of earth involves application of the basic and applied knowledge of geography, physics, chemistry, biology, mathematics, statistics and evolution. The major thrust areas in the field of earth science research includes the study of soil, geomorphology, biogeography, climatology, meteorology, geochemistry, geology, paleontology, edaphology, pedology, oceanography and limnology. The study of geology and earth sciences provide novel insights into the process of celestial evolution of planet earth and its geological features.
Environmental sciences is a interdisciplinary academic field that draws on ecology, geology, meteorology, biology, chemistry, engineering, and physics to study environmental problems and human impacts on the environment. Environmental science is a quantitative discipline with both applied and theoretical aspects and has been influential in informing the policies of governments around the world. Environmental science is considered separate from environmental studies, which emphasizes the human relationship with the environment and the social and political dimensions thereof. Whereas, environmental studies might focus on the economic and political dimensions of international climate-change protocols, an environmental scientist would seek to understand climate change by quantifying its effects with models and evaluating means of mitigation.