Value Added Abstract
Dalal Salem Almghairbi
Background: Conflict is a significant and recurrent problem in most modern healthcare systems. Given its ubiquity, effective techniques to manage or resolve conflict safely are required. Objective: This review focuses on conflict resolution interventions for improvement of patient safety through understanding and applying/teaching conflict resolution skills that critically depend on communication and improvement of staff members’ ability to voice their concerns. Methods: We used the Population-Intervention-Comparator-Outcome model to outline our methodology. Relevant English language sources for both published and unpublished papers up to February 2018 were sourced across five electronic databases: the Cochrane Library, EMBASE, MEDLINE, SCOPUS and Web of Science. Results: After removal of duplicates, 1485 studies were screened. Six articles met the inclusion criteria with a total sample size of 286 healthcare worker participants. Three training programs were identified among the included studies: (A) crisis resource management training; (B) the Team Strategies and Tools to Enhance Performance and Patient Safety (TeamSTEPPS) training; and (C) the two-challenge rule (a component of TeamSTEPPS), and two studies manipulating wider team behaviors. Outcomes reported included participant reaction and observer rating of conflict resolution, speaking up or advocacy-inquiry behaviours. Study results were inconsistent in showing benefits of interventions. Conclusion: The evidence for training to improve conflict resolution in the clinical environment is sparse. Novel methods that seek to influence wider team behaviours may complement traditional interventions directed at individuals.