William J. Rowe
Of 12 moon walkers, James Irwin on day after return from Apollo 15 mission, showed extraordinary bicycle ( B) stress test (ST) hypertension ( 275/125) after 3 minutes exercise; supervising > 5000 maximum treadmill ST, author never witnessed ST- blood pressure approaching this level. Symptom-limited maximum B stress test showed “cyanotic fingernails”; possibly venous blood trapped peripherally, supporting author’s “Apollo 15 Space Syndrome,” postulating that severe fingertip pain during space walks, triggered by plasma fluid, trapped distally; mechanism could be related to endothelial dysfunction, providing “silent ischemia” warning. Neil Armstrong returned to Earth with severe diastolic hypertension ( 160/135), consistent with ischemic left ventricular dysfunction; 50 mm increase in comparison with resting BP 110/85. With inhalation of lunar dust, brought into habitat on space suit, with high lunar iron (I) this dust inhalation, along with reduced (R) space flighttransferrin, R antioxidant, calcium (Ca) blocker - magnesium, conducive to severe oxidative stress, Ca overload with potential endothelial injuries. Using moon walker studies as example, my recent editorials show that I dust, released from brakes, with over 90% of brakes made of I, is a major hypertension factor and may also contribute to myocardial infarctions.