Salt-related knowledge, attitude, intention, self-efficacy, and practice in women and its Association with 24-hour urinary sodium excretion

Marzeyeh Soleymani-nejad, Nast


Sodium intake more than maximum daily value is the most important risk-factor for hypertension. This study investigated 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level and its relationship with salt-related cognitive factors in two suburbs in Ahwaz city, Iran. This descriptive analytical cross-sectional study was undertaken among 260 women who were selected using systematic random sampling. Salt-related knowledge, attitude, intention, self-efficacy, and practice data were gathered using a researcher designed and validated questionnaire. To determine real salt intake of participants, 24-hour urinary sodium excretion level was measured. Data were analyzed using SPSS software edition 16, and running statistical tests including Pearson correlation and one-way Annova. Mean 24-hour Urinary sodium excretion was 3029.23±1295.31 mg/lit/day. Only 28% of participants knew the WHO recommended maximum level of salt intake. None of participants referred to all health consequences of high salt intake. Of the participants believed that their own daily salt intake is adequate. Most participant always added salt while cooking (86.8%) and never considered food label for sodium/salt while shopping (80.7%). There was significant association between sodium excretion level and knowledge (r=0.486, P< 0.001), attitude (r=0.587, P< 0.001), practice (r= 0.134, P=0.031), perceived susceptibility (r=0.282, P< 0.001), and perceived severity (r=0.224, p= 0.049). Salt-related practice was positively correlated to salt-related knowledge (r=0.164, p=0.008). Considering the significant relationship observed between urinary sodium intake and sodium-related knowledge, attitude, and practice, it seems necessary to develop and implement effective programs to improve these behavioral factors as contributing factors of population sodium intake.      

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