Sudhansu Sekhar Patra
Stem cells are special type of cells which have unique volume to reinstate themselves and distinguish to give increase to specialized cell types for many tissues. Hence, they are the prime cells of all cell types. Stem cells can be embryonic, fetal, and adult or somatic types. Cells can be reprogrammed insincerely by the summary of endogenous transcription factors through using diseases similar retrovirus to produce iPSCs (induced pluripotent stem cells). There are proteins that are central in the rule of stem cell difference such as bone morphogenic protein -2 (BMP-2), leukocyte inhibitory factor and micro RNAs. Cutting edge study featuring stem cells will gear us to medical discovery of cell-based treatments of numerous diseases happening in animals and human lives. Apart from applications of stem cells there is a prevalent disagreement over the use of embryonic stem cells. The controversy marks the methods used to originate new embryonic stem cell lines which injury the blastocyst. However, reprogramming of adult cells into iPSCs holds great promise for reformative medicine. Development in stem cell research is ever growing and now a day it is gaining a concern and this is a promising indication that adult and embryonic stem cells will be used in the future to treat cancer, paralysis, cardiac failure, stroke, diabetes and many extra viruses. In this article we reviewed the belongings and organization of stem cells, regulatory factors of stem cell pluripotency and differentiation, reprograming and potential clinical applications of stem cells of ethical issues on stem cell therapy.