Allaramadji Beyaitan Bantin, X
The study of the impact of climate change on water resource of the agricultural landscape is of great importance for the management and planning of water resources and agricultural production. This article examines the impact of climate change on agriculture and water resources in the Chari Basin in Chad. The study is usually based on the values of the standardized precipitation index calculated over the study period (1950-2010), i.e., 50 years of observations. The results obtained show a great variability of the SPI values. However, Buishand's statistical tests, Hubert's segmentation, linear regression and the Mann Kendall slope used confirm this rainfall variability. The most remarkable periods of drought in terms of intensity in 1961, 1915, 1977, 1980 and 2005 are extremely severe during which they are felt on all stations in southern Chad. 90% of Lake Chad, the largest in the country, has disappeared in the last 50 years under the combined effect of droughts and increased water withdrawals for irrigation. Studies predict an intensification of this dry and arid climate throughout the 21st century, which means fewer agricultural changes, degraded pastures, and a difficult daily life for those dependent on agriculture. The total national cereals, whose production was estimated at about 1,620,000 tons last year, experienced a deficit of 455,000 MT, a decrease of 50 percent compared with the previous year and an average of 23 percent of the last five year's. A sector support policy would provide answers to the structural problems it faces in order to improve its performance.